Table of Contents
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If you are a developer or an application programmer who intends to modify Sqoop or build an extension using one of Sqoop’s internal APIs, you should read this document. The following sections describe the purpose of each API, where internal APIs are used, and which APIs are necessary for implementing support for additional databases.
Apache Sqoop is an open source software product of The Apache Software Foundation. Development for Sqoop occurs at http://sqoop.apache.org. At that site, you can obtain:
The following prerequisite knowledge is required for Sqoop:
Software development in Java
This document assumes you are using a Linux or Linux-like environment. If you are using Windows, you may be able to use cygwin to accomplish most of the following tasks. If you are using Mac OS X, you should see few (if any) compatibility errors. Sqoop is predominantly operated and tested on Linux.
You can obtain the source code for Sqoop using following command: git clone https://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/sqoop.git
Sqoop source code is held in a
git repository. Instructions for
retrieving source from the repository are provided at:
TODO provide a page in the web site.
Compilation instructions are provided in the
COMPILING.txt file in
the root of the source repository.
This section specifies the APIs available to application writers who want to integrate with Sqoop, and those who want to modify Sqoop.
The next three subsections are written for the following use cases:
Each section describes the system in successively greater depth.
Sqoop automatically generates classes that represent the tables imported into the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The class contains member fields for each column of the imported table; an instance of the class holds one row of the table. The generated classes implement the serialization APIs used in Hadoop, namely the Writable and DBWritable interfaces. They also contain these other convenience methods:
The full set of methods guaranteed to exist in an auto-generated class
is specified in the abstract class
SqoopRecord may depend on Sqoop’s public API. This is all classes
com.cloudera.sqoop.lib package. These are briefly described below.
Clients of Sqoop should not need to directly interact with any of these classes,
although classes generated by Sqoop will depend on them. Therefore, these APIs
are considered public and care will be taken when forward-evolving them.
RecordParserclass will parse a line of text into a list of fields, using controllable delimiters and quote characters.
FieldFormatterclass provides a method which handles quoting and escaping of characters in a field which will be used in
BigDecimalSerializercontains a pair of methods that facilitate serialization of
BigDecimalobjects over the Writable interface.
The full specification of the public API is available on the Sqoop Development Wiki as SIP-4.
This section covers the API and primary classes used by extensions for Sqoop which allow Sqoop to interface with more database vendors.
While Sqoop uses JDBC and
read from databases, differences in the SQL supported by different vendors as
well as JDBC metadata necessitates vendor-specific codepaths for most databases.
Sqoop’s solution to this problem is by introducing the
ConnManager is an abstract class defining all methods that interact with the
database itself. Most implementations of
ConnManager will extend the
com.cloudera.sqoop.manager.SqlManager abstract class, which uses standard
SQL to perform most actions. Subclasses are required to implement the
getConnection() method which returns the actual JDBC connection to the
database. Subclasses are free to override all other methods as well. The
SqlManager class itself exposes a protected API that allows developers to
selectively override behavior. For example, the
allows the SQL query used by
getColNames() to be modified without needing to
rewrite the majority of
ConnManager implementations receive a lot of their configuration
data from a Sqoop-specific class,
SqoopOptions does not directly store specific per-manager
options. Instead, it contains a reference to the
Tool.getConf() after parsing command-line arguments with
GenericOptionsParser. This allows extension arguments via "
any.specific.param=any.value" without requiring any layering of
options parsing or modification of
Configuration forms the basis of the
Configuration passed to any
Job invoked in the workflow, so that users can set on the
command-line any necessary custom Hadoop state.
ConnManager implementations are stateless. Thus, the
system which instantiates
ConnManagers may implement multiple
instances of the same
ConnMananger class over Sqoop’s lifetime. It
is currently assumed that instantiating a
ConnManager is a
lightweight operation, and is done reasonably infrequently. Therefore,
ConnManagers are not cached between operations, etc.
ConnManagers are currently created by instances of the abstract
ManagerFactory implementation currently serves all of Sqoop:
should not modify
DefaultManagerFactory. Instead, an
ManagerFactory implementation should be provided
with the new
ManagerFactory has a single method of
accept(). This method will determine whether it can
ConnManager for the user’s
SqoopOptions. If so, it
ConnManager instance. Otherwise, it returns
ManagerFactory implementations used are governed by the
sqoop.connection.factories setting in
sqoop-site.xml. Users of extension
libraries can install the 3rd-party library containing a new
ConnManager(s), and configure
sqoop-site.xml to use the new
DefaultManagerFactory principly discriminates between
databases by parsing the connect string stored in
Extension authors may make use of classes in the
util packages to facilitate their implementations.
These packages and classes are described in more detail in the following
Sqoop supports imports from databases to HBase. When copying data into HBase, it must be transformed into a format HBase can accept. Specifically:
All of this is done via
Put statements in the HBase client API.
Sqoop’s interaction with HBase is performed in the
package. Records are deserialzed from the database and emitted from the mapper.
The OutputFormat is responsible for inserting the results into HBase. This is
done through an interface called
has a method called
takes as input a
Map<String, Object> representing the fields of the dataset.
It returns a
List<Put> describing how to insert the cells into HBase.
PutTransformer implementation is the
that uses the string-based representation of each field to serialize the
fields to HBase.
You can override this implementation by implementing your own
and adding it to the classpath for the map tasks (e.g., with the
option). To tell Sqoop to use your implementation, set the
sqoop.hbase.insert.put.transformer.class property to identify your class
Within your PutTransformer implementation, the specified row key
column and column family are
available via the
You are free to make additional Put operations outside these constraints;
for example, to inject additional rows representing a secondary index.
However, Sqoop will execute all
Put operations against the table
This section describes the internal architecture of Sqoop.
The Sqoop program is driven by the
com.cloudera.sqoop.Sqoop main class.
A limited number of additional classes are in the same package;
(described earlier) and
ConnFactory (which manipulates
The general program flow is as follows:
com.cloudera.sqoop.Sqoop is the main class and implements Tool. A new
instance is launched with
ToolRunner. The first argument to Sqoop is
a string identifying the name of a
SqoopTool to run. The
itself drives the execution of the user’s requested operation (e.g.,
import, export, codegen, etc).
SqoopTool API is specified fully in
SqoopTool will parse the remainder of the arguments,
setting the appropriate fields in the
SqoopOptions class. It will
then run its body.
Then in the SqoopTool’s
run() method, the import or export or other
action proper is executed. Typically, a
ConnManager is then
instantiated based on the data in the
ConnFactory is used to get a
ConnManager from a
the mechanics of this were described in an earlier section. Imports
and exports and other large data motion tasks typically run a
MapReduce job to operate on a table in a parallel, reliable fashion.
An import does not specifically need to be run via a MapReduce job;
ConnManager.importTable() method is left to determine how best
to run the import. Each main action is actually controlled by the
ConnMananger, except for the generating of code, which is done by
ClassWriter. (Both in the
com.cloudera.sqoop.orm package.) Importing into Hive is also
taken care of via the
importTable() has completed. This is done without concern
ConnManager implementation used.
importTable() method receives a single argument of
ImportJobContext which contains parameters to the method. This
class may be extended with additional parameters in the future, which
optionally further direct the import operation. Similarly, the
exportTable() method receives an argument of type
ExportJobContext. These classes contain the name of the table to
import/export, a reference to the
SqoopOptions object, and other
The following subpackages under
hive- Facilitates importing data to Hive.
io- Implementations of
java.io.*interfaces (namely, OutputStream and Writer).
lib- The external public API (described earlier).
ManagerFactoryinterface and their implementations.
mapreduce- Classes interfacing with the new (0.20+) MapReduce API.
orm- Code auto-generation.
tool- Implementations of
util- Miscellaneous utility classes.
io package contains OutputStream and BufferedWriter implementations
used by direct writers to HDFS. The
SplittableBufferedWriter allows a single
BufferedWriter to be opened to a client which will, under the hood, write to
multiple files in series as they reach a target threshold size. This allows
unsplittable compression libraries (e.g., gzip) to be used in conjunction with
Sqoop import while still allowing subsequent MapReduce jobs to use multiple
input splits per dataset. The large object file storage (see
SIP-3) system’s code
lies in the
io package as well.
mapreduce package contains code that interfaces directly with
Hadoop MapReduce. This package’s contents are described in more detail
in the next section.
orm package contains code used for class generation. It depends on the
JDK’s tools.jar which provides the com.sun.tools.javac package.
util package contains various utilities used throughout Sqoop:
ClassLoaderStackmanages a stack of
ClassLoaderinstances used by the current thread. This is principly used to load auto-generated code into the current thread when running MapReduce in local (standalone) mode.
DirectImportUtilscontains convenience methods used by direct HDFS importers.
Executorlaunches external processes and connects these to stream handlers generated by an AsyncSink (see more detail below).
ExportExceptionis thrown by
ConnManagerswhen exports fail.
ImportExceptionis thrown by
ConnManagerswhen imports fail.
JdbcUrlhandles parsing of connect strings, which are URL-like but not specification-conforming. (In particular, JDBC connect strings may have
PerfCountersare used to estimate transfer rates for display to the user.
ResultSetPrinterwill pretty-print a ResultSet.
In several places, Sqoop reads the stdout from external processes. The most
straightforward cases are direct-mode imports as performed by the
DirectPostgresqlManager. After a process is spawned by
Runtime.exec(), its stdout (
Process.getInputStream()) and potentially stderr
Process.getErrorStream()) must be handled. Failure to read enough data from
both of these streams will cause the external process to block before writing
more. Consequently, these must both be handled, and preferably asynchronously.
In Sqoop parlance, an "async sink" is a thread that takes an
reads it to completion. These are realized by
AsyncSink implementations. The
com.cloudera.sqoop.util.AsyncSink abstract class defines the operations
this factory must perform.
processStream() will spawn another thread to
immediately begin handling the data read from the
InputStream argument; it
must read this stream to completion. The
join() method allows external threads
to wait until this processing is complete.
AsyncSink implementations are provided: the
repeat everything on the
InputStream as log4j INFO statements. The
NullAsyncSink consumes all its input and does nothing.
ConnManagers that make use of external processes have their own
AsyncSink implementations as inner classes, which read from the database tools
and forward the data along to HDFS, possibly performing formatting conversions
in the meantime.
Sqoop schedules MapReduce jobs to effect imports and exports.
Configuration and execution of MapReduce jobs follows a few common
steps (configuring the
InputFormat; configuring the
Mapper implementation; etc…). These steps are
formalized in the
JobBase allows a user to specify the
Mapper to use.
JobBase itself is subclassed by
which offer better support for the particular configuration steps
common to import or export-related jobs, respectively.
ImportJobBase.runImport() will call the configuration steps and run
a job to import a table to HDFS.
Subclasses of these base classes exist as well. For example,
DataDrivenImportJob uses the
DataDrivenDBInputFormat to run an
import. This is the most common type of import used by the various
ConnManager implementations available. MySQL uses a different class
MySQLDumpImportJob) to run a direct-mode import. Its custom
InputFormat implementations reside in this package as